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Soni Motors Thailand is Thailand's and Dubai's top car exporter, Thailand's top auto exporter and Thailand's top 4x4 exporter of Right Hand Drive and Left Hand Drive vehicles to the Americas. We established our dominance in export of Right Hand Drive vehicles and have been Asia's top auto exporter to Right Hand Drive American countries including Trinidad and Tobago, Bahamas, Bermuda, Antigua Barbuda, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, St. Lucia, Guyana, Suriname, and Falkland Islands.
We are proud to be Thailand's top car exporter to Trinidad and Tobago. We are also Thailand's and Dubai's top LHD exporter to Left Hand countries like Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela.
Here are some import rules and regulations in different Southern American countries.
|COUNTRY||IMPORT*||FLEET (motor vehicles/1000 people)||STANDARDS & I/M||COMMENT|
|Anguilla||Inspection required before registration.||Most cars imported from the US|
|Antigua and Barbuda||No import restriction||195 (1994 est.)||There is an environmental tax for vehicles|
|Argentina||Only new vehicles, equipped with emission control technologies according to Euro 3 standard.||181 (2003)||As of 2006, new light‐duty vehicles must comply with Euro 3, Euro 4 as of 2009, likewise for new diesel trucks and buses. I/M programs are implemented in 7 major cities in the country, with emission inspections to begin January 2008.||Some vehicles imported from Brazil; about 56% of passenger vehicles in Buenos Aires are diesel, 35% are petrol, and the rest are CNG. A city bus retrofit project is to be launched in Buenos Aires and Cordoba. Import of used vehicles banned|
|Aruba||No import restriction|
|Bahamas||No import restriction|
|Barbados||Used vehicles must be less than four years old, and an environmental tax is paid on arrival||370 (2003)||Introduction of electric and hybrid cars. Ethanol additive as 10% of gasoline planned, according to UNFCCC|
|Belize||No import restriction, although an environmental tax is paid on arrival||91 (1998)||Indication of vehicle inspection system.||Between 5‐8% of vehicles run on butane.|
|Bermuda||No vehicle over six months old can be imported||Annual inspection required for all cars; extremely strict laws regarding transport||The density per square mile of motor traffic on the roads is the highest in the world ‐more than 2,600 vehicles per square mile; mostly Japanese cars. Measures are proposed to limit the number of cars, ban all second‐hand cars and restrict car ownership|
|Bolivia||No import restriction.||10 (2003)||Indication of vehicle inspection system.|
|Brazil||Importation of used vehicles is banned, as is import of diesel passenger vehicles. Imported vehicles must meet Euro 4 standards.||170 (2003)||Vehicle emissions standards set by IBAMA, based on Euro standards: Euro 2 implemented in 1993, Euro 4 planned for 2008 equivalent to PROCONVE IV standard), and Euro IV in 2009. All new trucks and buses must be Euro 4 in 2009. A vehicle inspection program is due to start in 2009.||In 2005, 70% of the cars sold in Brazil were flex‐fuel. There is an ongoing bus retrofit program in São Paulo.|
|Cayman Islands (BVI)||No import restriction, although an environmental tax is paid on arrival.||Roadworthiness inspection certificate required for registration, and yearly after that.|
|Chile||Importation of used vehicles is banned.||136 (2003)||Emissions testing programme started in 1994 ‐annual and roadside inspections. Euro 3 standards introduced in 2004, Euro 4 to start in 2009 for passenger cars. Euro 4 for diesel light vehicles required from 2005.||In‐use petrol vehicles have to meet I/M limits of 0.5% CO and 100 ppm HC; diesel light‐duty cars must meet PM limit of 0.125 g/km; loading testing of diesel trucks undertaken. As of April 2007, over 1,000 municipal buses will be required to install diesel particulate filters|
|Colombia||Importation of used vehicles is banned.||51 (2003)||Catalytic converters required on all new and imported vehicles since 1 January 1995. Light‐duty petrol vehicles must conform to emissions standards roughly equivalent to that of USEPA 1987 standards. New vehicles must comply with Euro 1; heavy‐duty diesel vehicles must comply with equivalent of USEPA 1994 standards for buses and 1991 standards for other vehicles. New buses must comply with Euro 2, other new heavy duty vehicles with Euro 1.||Started ethanol programme in 2002.|
|Costa Rica||Imported vehicles must pass EPA Smog Test signed off by local consulate; all imported vehicles must have catalytic converters.||185 (2003)||Test‐only annual inspection system started in 2002 undertaken by one private company. Taxis tested twice per year.|
|Cuba||Used vehicles must be less than four years old (by date of manufacture, not model year).||37 (1990)||Inspection system started in 2001.||High proportion of old American (pre1959) and Russian cars; new imports from China.|
|Dominica||No import restrictions, but environmental levy must be paid on arrival (varies for new and vehicles over 5 years old).||Considering a vehicle emission testing programme.|
|Dominican Republic||Limit of 2000cc and maximum of six cylinders; no 'luxury' cars allowed.||97 (est. 2001)||Indication of vehicle inspection system.|
|Ecuador||Importation of used vehicles is banned. Model 2000 and newer cars must have catalytic converters.||53 (2003)||New light‐duty petrol vehicles must conform to emissions standards roughly equivalent to that of USEPA 1987 standards or Euro 1; new heavy‐duty diesel vehicles must comply with equivalent of USEPA 1994 standards or Euro 2. Emission testing programme run by CORPAIRE, a mixed public/private institution.||Heavy duty diesel retrofits ongoing in Quito. The Andean Automotive Policy prohibits imports from other countries of used cars, trucks, and buses, as well as new vehicles from previous years. It also bans trade in these vehicles among the member nations.|
|El Salvador||Import requires proof that vehicle complies with emission control requirements; vehicles must be manufactured after 1995.||61 (1997)||Fuel sulphur specs ‐diesel (5000 ppm), petrol (1500 ppm)|
|French Guiana||New cars must be equipped with catalytic converters.|
|Grenada||Inspection required before registration; environmental levy on vehicles depending on age.|
|Guatemala||No import restriction||57 (2003)||I/M program cancelled according to USEPA.|
|Guyana||No import restriction||As of 2004, Guyana EPA and Bureau of Standards were developing emissions standards||UNFCCC documents suggest a 5 year age maximum for cars and 3 year maximum for heavy vehicles; Guyana starting ethanol production|
|Haiti||No import restriction||8 (1990)|
|Honduras||Used vehicles must be less than seven years old.||61 (2003)||Indication of an inspection system.||Most new car sales are Japanese cars.|
|Jamaica||Used vehicles must be less than three years old (from date of manufacture).||175 (2004)||Inspection system in place; 2004 legislation will privatise system||Incentives to import diesel cars (to increase fleet portion from 14% to 30%).|
|Mexico||The vehicle must be a minimum of 5 years old (and max of 10 years), must have a gasoline engine, and must be equipped with a catalytic converter.||201 (2003)||Since 1993, heavy‐duty diesel vehicles must meet one of these standards: US 1998, US 2004, Euro 3, or Euro 4. All light‐duty and passenger vehicles must meet US Tier 1, except on NOx (levels vary) and PM (applies only to diesel).||Average age of vehicle fleet 9 years.|
|Montserrat||Most cars are from Japan, most buses and trucks from the US or UK|
|Nicaragua||Used vehicles must be less than ten years old and must pass emissions test before registration||39 (2003)||Nicaragua considering phase‐in of an I/M programme to start with new cars then phase in older ones, according to USAID.|
|Panama||Imported vehicles must past emissions test before registration||107 (2003)|
|Paraguay||Importation of used vehicles is banned.||88 (2003)|
|Peru||Passenger vehicles must be less than five years old, commercial vehicles less than eight years old.||46 (2003)||I/M programmes in certain cities, according to USEPA. Local new source reports of WAP‐enabled vehicle inspection through mobile phones.|
|Puerto Rico||No import restriction||295 (1990)||Annual inspection required for all vehicles more than two years old, includes emissions test and follows US emission standards.|
|St Kitts and Nevis||No import restriction, but environmental levy to be paid, depending on vehicle age.||297 (1999 est.)|
|Saint Lucia||166 (1999 est.)||Roadworthiness inspection programme started in 2003.|
|St Vincent and the Grenadines||128 (2001)|
|Suriname||Used vehicles must be less than five years old.||143 (2000 est.)|
|Trinidad and Tobago||No import restriction||220 (1998 est.)||Indication of vehicle inspection system|
|Turks and Caicos Islands||Indication of vehicle inspection system|
|Uruguay||Import of used vehicles is banned, new vehicles must meet Euro 3 standard.||138 (1990)||Indication of vehicle inspection system||Average age of vehicle fleet 17 years.|
|Venezuela||Importation of used vehicles is banned.||90 (1990)||Emissions testing in certain areas, with fines for violators.||The Andean Automotive Policy prohibits imports from other countries of used cars, trucks, and buses, as well as new vehicles from previous years. It also bans trade in these vehicles among the member nations|
|Virgin Islands||No import restriction.|
|Total: 42 countries|
The state of Antigua and Barbuda, part of the Leeward Islands chain in the eastern Caribbean, is approximately 420 km (261 mi) SE of the US Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and 180 km (110 mi) N of the French overseas department of Guadeloupe. The total land area of 440 sq km (170 sq mi) includes Antigua (280 sq km/108 sq mi); Barbuda (161 sq km/62 sq mi); and uninhabited Redonda (1.3 sq km/5 sq mi), located 40 km (25 mi) to the SW. This total area comprises slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, D.C. The total coastline is 153 km (95 mi). Antigua and Barbuda's capital city, St. John's, is located on the northwestern edge of the island of Antigua.
Antigua and Barbuda adheres to the common external tariff schedule of CARICOM; rates (which range up to 35%) are generally ad valorem, based on the cost, insurance, and freight value, and a wide range of goods is permitted duty-free entry. Additional special rates are applied for tobacco, cement, petroleum products, vans and trucks, and certain types of timber.
Shaped like a wedge with its point in the south, Argentina, the second-largest country in South America, dominates the southern part of the continent. Argentina is slightly less than three-tenths the size of the United States with a total area of 2,766,890 sq km (1,068,302 sq mi); the length is about 3,650 km (2,268 mi) N–S and the width, 1,430 km (889 mi) E–W. To the N Argentina is bounded by Bolivia; to the NE by Paraguay; to the E by Brazil, Uruguay, and the Atlantic Ocean; and to the S and W by Chile, with a total boundary length of 9,665 km (6,006 mi).
The Commonwealth of the Bahamas occupies a 13,940 sq km (5,382 sq mi) archipelago which extends 950 km (590 mi) SE–NW and 298 km (185 mi) NE–SW between southeast Florida and northern Hispaniola. Comparatively, the area occupied by the Bahamas is slightly smaller than the state of Connecticut. There are nearly 700 islands, of which about 30 are inhabited. New Providence, 207 sq km (80 sq mi), although not the largest, is by far the most populous and most densely populated island. The total coastline is 3,542 km (2,201 mi).
Situated about 320 km (200 mi) NNE of Trinidad and about 160 km (100 mi) ESE of St. Lucia, Barbados is the most easterly of the Caribbean islands. The island is 34 km (21 mi) long N–S and 23 km (14 mi) wide E–W, with an area of 430 sq km (166 sq mi) and a total coastline of 97 km (60 mi). Comparatively, Barbados occupies slightly less than 2.5 times the area of Washington, D.C.
Belize (formerly British Honduras), on the Caribbean coast of Central America, has an area of 22,966 sq km (8,867 sq mi), extending 280 km (174 mi) N–S and 109 km (68 mi) W–E. Comparatively, the area occupied by Belize is slightly smaller than the state of Massachusetts. Bounded on the N by Mexico, on the E by the Caribbean Sea, and on the S and W by Guatemala, Belize has a total boundary length of 516 km (320 mi).
Situated in South America just N of the Tropic of Capricorn, Bolivia has a total area of 1,098,580 sq km (424,164 sq mi), extending about 1,530 km (950 mi) N–S and 1,450 km (900 mi) E–W. Comparatively, the area occupied by Bolivia is slightly less than three times the size of the state of Montana. Completely landlocked, Bolivia is bounded on the N and NE by Brazil, on the SE by Paraguay, on the S by Argentina, on the SW by Chile, and on the W by Peru, with a total boundary length of 6,743 km (4,190 mi).
Situated on the east-central coast of the continent, Brazil is the largest country in South America and the fourth-largest in the world in coterminous area, ranking after Russia, Canada, and China (the US is larger with Alaska, Hawaii, and the dependencies included). Occupying nearly half of the South American continent, it covers an area of 8,511,965 sq km (3,286,488 sq mi), extending 4,395 km (2,731 mi) N–S and 4,320 km (2,684 mi) E–W. Contiguous with all continental South American countries except Ecuador and Chile, Brazil is bounded on the N by Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana, on the NE, E, and SE by the Atlantic Ocean, on the S by Uruguay, on the SW by Argentina and Paraguay, on the W by Bolivia and Peru, and on the NW by Colombia, with a total boundary length of 14,691 km (9,108 mi). Brazil is divided into 26 states and one federal district. The federal district, including the capital of Brasília, inaugurated on 21 April 1960, is surrounded on three sides by the state of Goiás and on the fourth by Minas Gerais.
Canada consists of all of the North American continent north of the United States except Alaska and the small French islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon. Its total land area of 9,976,140 sq km (3,851,809 sq mi) makes it the second-largest country in the world (slightly larger than China and the United States), extending 5,187 km (3,223 mi) E–W from Cape Spear, Newfoundland, to Mt. St. Elias in the Yukon Territory and 4,627 km (2,875 mi) N–S from Cape Columbia on Ellesmere Island to Pelee Island in Lake Erie. Canada is bounded on the N by the Arctic Ocean, on the E by Kennedy Channel, Nares Strait, Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, and the Atlantic Ocean, on the S by the United States, and on the W by the Pacific Ocean and the US state of Alaska. The coastal waters of Canada also include the Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay. The country's total land boundary length is 8,893 km (5,526 mi). Its total coastline length is 243,791 km (151,485 mi). Canada's capital city, Ottawa, is located in the southeastern part of the country.
Situated along the southwestern coast of South America, Chile has an area of 756,950 sq km (292,260 sq mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by Chile is slightly smaller than twice the size of the state of Montana. A long string of land pressed between the Pacific and the towering Andes, Chile is 4,270 km (2,653 mi) long N–S; it is 356 km (221 mi) wide at its broadest point (just north of Antofagasta) and 64 km (40 mi) wide at its narrowest point, with an average width of 175 km (109 mi) E–W. It is bordered on the N by Peru, on the NE by Bolivia, on the E by Argentina, on the S by the Drake Passage, and on the W by the Pacific Ocean. At the far SE, at the end of the Strait of Magellan (Estrecho de Magallanes), it has an opening to the Atlantic Ocean. Chile's boundary length (including coastline) is 12,606 km (7,833 mi).
Colombia is the only South American country with both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines. The fourth-largest country in South America, it has a total area of 1,138,910 sq km (439,736 sq mi), including insular possessions, and extends 1,700 km (1,060 mi) NNW–SSE and 1,210 km (750 mi) NNE–SSW. Comparatively, the area occupied by Colombia is slightly less than three times the size of the state of Montana. Bordered on the N by the Caribbean Sea, on the NE by Venezuela, on the SE by Brazil, on the SW by Peru and Ecuador, on the W by the Pacific Ocean, and on the NW by Panama, the Colombian mainland is located entirely within the tropics. Its total boundary length is 6,004 km (3,731 mi). Its coastlines extend 3,208 km (1,993 mi). Also held by the Republic of Colombia (though claimed by Nicaragua) are the archipelago of San Andrés and Providencia in the Caribbean Sea, about 190 km (120 mi) off the coast of Nicaragua, and the islands of Malpelo, Gorgona, and Gorgonilla in the Pacific Ocean. Colombia also holds the uninhabited Caribbean islands of Quita Sueño Bank, Roncador Cay, and Serrana Bank, to which the US renounced all rights under the Treaty of Quita Sueño, ratified by the US Senate in July 1981; Nicaragua also disputes this claim. Colombia has a dispute with Venezuela over maritime rights in the Gulf of Venezuela. Negotiations have been going on unsuccessfully since 1970, and in August 1987, a Colombian naval vessel entered the disputed region in an apparent attempt to make Venezuela more responsive.
The third-smallest country in Central America, Costa Rica has an area of 51,100 sq km (19,730 sq mi), including some small islands. Comparatively, the area occupied by Costa Rica is slightly smaller than the state of West Virginia. Its length is 464 km (288 mi) N–S, and its width is 274 km (170 mi) E–W. Costa Rica is bordered on the N by Nicaragua, on the E by the Caribbean Sea, on the SE by Panama, and on the SW and W by the Pacific Ocean; the total boundary length is 1,929 km (1,199 mi), which includes the coastline of 1,290 km (805 mi). Costa Rica's capital city, San José, is located in the center of the country.
The Republic of Cuba consists of one large island and several small ones situated on the northern rim of the Caribbean Sea, about 160 km (100 mi) south of Florida. With an area of 110,860 sq km (42,803 sq mi), it extends 1,223 km (760 mi) E–W and about 89 km (55 mi) N–S. Cuba is the largest country in the Caribbean, accounting for more than one-half of West Indian land area. Comparatively, the area occupied by Cuba is slightly smaller than the state of Pennsylvania. It is separated from Florida by the Straits of Florida, from the Bahamas and Jamaica by various channels, from Haiti by the Windward Passage, and from Mexico by the Yucatán Channel and the Gulf of Mexico. Cuba's total coastline is 3,735 km (2,316 mi). The largest offshore island, the Isle of Youth (Isla de la Juventud), formerly known as the Isle of Pines (Isla de Pinos), lies southwest of the main island and has an area of 2,200 sq km (849 sq mi); the other islands have a combined area of 3,715 sq km (1,434 sq mi).
Although usually classified as one of the Windward Islands, Dominica, located between Guadeloupe to the N and Martinique to the S, marks the midpoint of the Lesser Antilles. To the E lies the Atlantic Ocean, to the W the Caribbean Sea. The island has an area of 754 sq km (291 sq mi) and is 47 km (29 mi) long by 26 km (16 mi) wide, with a coastline of 148 km (92 mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by Dominica is slightly more than four times the size of Washington, D.C.
The Dominican Republic occupies the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola (Española) and includes the islands of Beata, Catalina, Saona, Alto Velo, and Catalinita in the Caribbean Sea, and several islets in the Atlantic Ocean. It has an area of 48,730 sq km (18,815 sq mi), with a length of 386 km (240 mi) E–W, extending from Cape Engaño to the Haitian border, and a width of 261 km (162 mi) N–S, extending from Cape Isabela to Cape Beata. Comparatively, the area occupied by the Dominican Republic is slightly more than twice the size of the state of New Hampshire. Bounded on the N by the Atlantic Ocean, on the E by the Mona Passage (which separates it from Puerto Rico), on the S by the Caribbean Sea, and on the W by Haiti, the Dominican Republic has a total boundary length of 1,648 km (890 mi), of which only 360 km (194 mi) is the length of the land boundary with Haiti.
The fourth-smallest country in South America, Ecuador is located on the west coast of the continent and is crossed by the equator (the country gets its name from the Spanish word for "equator"). It has a length of 714 km (444 mi) N-S and a width of 658 km (409 mi) E-W. Ecuador borders Colombia on the N, Peru on the E and S, and the Pacific Ocean on the w, with a total boundary length of 4,247 km (2,639 mi), of which 2,237 km (1,398 mi) is coastline. (Ecuador has lost about two-thirds of the territory it once claimed to Colombia and Peru.)
El Salvador, the smallest Central American country, has an area of 21,040 sq km (8,124 sq mi), extending 270 km (168 mi) WNW-ESE and 142 km (88 mi) N–S. Comparatively, the area occupied by El Salvador is slightly smaller than the state of Massachusetts. Bounded on the N and E by Honduras, on the S and SW by the Pacific Ocean, and on the NW by Guatemala, El Salvador has a total boundary length of 852 km (529 mi), of which 307 km (191 mi) is coastline. It is the only Central American country without a Caribbean coastline.
Located on the northeast coast of South America, and extending from 1° 30′ to 5° 30′ N and from 51° 4′ to 54° 3′ W, French Guiana (Guyane Française) has an Atlantic shoreline of about 320 km (200 mi) and a total area of some 91,000 sq km (35,000 sq mi). It is separated from Brazil by the Oyapock River in the E and the Tumuc-Humac Mountains in the S (440 km/273 mi); and from Suriname by the Maroni River (398 km/247 mi) on the W.
Located about 160 km (100 mi) N of Trinidad and 109 km (68 mi) SSW of St. Vincent, Grenada, which includes the inhabited islands of Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique, has an area of 340 sq km (131 sq mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by Grenada is slightly less than twice the size of Washington, D.C. Grenada island extends 34 km (21 mi) NE–SW and 19 km (12 mi) SE–NW, and has a coastline of 121 km (75 mi).
Situated in Central America, Guatemala has an area of 108,890 sq km (42,043 sq mi), with a maximum length of 457 km (284 mi) NNW–SSE and a maximum width of 428 km (266 mi) ENE–WSW. Comparatively, the area occupied by Guatemala is slightly smaller than the state of Tennessee. It is bounded on the E by Belize, Amatique Bay, and the Caribbean Sea, on the SE by Honduras and El Salvador, on the S by the Pacific Ocean, and on the W and N by Mexico, with a total boundary length of 2,087 km (1,297 mi).
Situated on the northeast coast of South America, Guyana is the third-smallest country on the continent, with an area of 214,970 sq km (83,000 sq mi), extending 807 km (501 mi) N–S and 436 km (271 mi) E–W, including disputed areas. Comparatively, the area occupied by Guyana is slightly smaller than the state of Idaho. Bounded on the N by the Atlantic Ocean, on the E by Suriname, on the S and S-W by Brazil, and on the NW by Venezuela, Guyana has a total boundary length of 2,921 km (1,815 mi) of which 459 km (285 mi) is coastline.
Occupying the western third of the island of Hispaniola, Haiti has an area of 27,750 sq km (10,714 sq mi) including the islands of Tortuga (La Tortue), Gonâve, Les Cayemites, and Vache. Comparatively, the area occupied by Haiti is slightly smaller than the state of Maryland. Extending roughly 485 km (300 mi) ENE-WSW and 385 km (240 mi) SSE–NNW, Haiti is bounded on the N by the Atlantic Ocean, on the E by the Dominican Republic, on the S by the Caribbean Sea, and on the W by the Windward Passage and the Gulf of Gonâve, with a total land boundary length of 360 km (224 mi) and a coastline of 1,771 km (1,100 mi). Haiti claims Navassa Island, an uninhabited US possession about 50 km (31 mi) west of Hispaniola.
Situated in Central America, Honduras has a total area of 112,090 sq km (43,278 sq mi), with a length of 663 km (412 mi) ENE-WSW and 317 km (197 mi) NNW–SSE. Comparatively, the area occupied by Honduras is slightly larger than the state of Tennessee. It is bounded on the N and E by the Caribbean Sea, on the S by Nicaragua and the Gulf of Fonseca, on the SW by El Salvador, and on the W by Guatemala, with a total boundary length of 2,340 km (1,454 mi), of which 820 km (509 mi) is coastline.
Jamaica is an island in the Caribbean Sea situated about 145 km (90 mi) S of Cuba. It has a total area of 10,990 sq km (4,243 sq mi) and extends, at maximum, 235 km (146 mi) N–S and 82 km (51 mi) E–W. Comparatively, the area occupied by Jamaica is slightly smaller than the state of Connecticut. The total coastline is 1,022 km (634 mi).
Situated south of the United States on the North American continent, Mexico has an area of 1,972,550 sq km (761,606 sq mi), including many uninhabited islands off the E and W coasts, which have a combined area of 5,073 sq km (1,959 sq mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by Mexico is slightly less than three times the size of the state of Texas. Mexico extends about 3,200 km (2,000 mi) SSE–NNW and 1,060 km (660 mi) ENE–WSW. Bordered on the N by the US, on the E by the Gulf of Mexico (including the Bay of Campeche), the Caribbean Sea, Belize, and Guatemala and on the S and W by the Pacific Ocean, Mexico has a total land boundary length of 4,353 km (2,704 mi) and a coastline of 9,330 km (5,797 mi).
The five islands of the Netherlands Antilles are divided geographically into two groups: the Leeward Islands (Benedenwindse Eilanden) and the Windward Islands (Bovenwindse Eilanden). The Windward group, off the north coast of South America, comprises the islands of Curaçao, with an area of 444 sq km (171 sq mi), and Bonaire, 288 sq km (111 sq mi).
Nicaragua, the largest of the Central American countries, has an area of 129,494 sq km (49,998 sq mi), which includes the area covered by the waters of Lake Nicaragua (about 8,000 sq km/3,089 sq mi) and Lake Managua (about 1,025 sq km/396 sq mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by Nicaragua is slightly smaller than the state of New York. The country has a length of 472 km (293 mi) N–S and a width of 478 km (297 mi) W–E. Bounded on the N by Honduras, on the E by the Caribbean Sea, on the S by Costa Rica, and on the W by the Pacific Ocean, Nicaragua has a total boundary length of 2,141 km (1,330 mi), of which 910 km (565 mi) is coastline.
The Republic of Panama, situated on the Isthmus of Panama, has an area of 78,200 sq km (30,193 sq mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by Panama is slightly smaller than the state of South Carolina. The Canal Zone (1,432 sq km/553 sq mi), over which the United States formerly exercised sovereignty, on 1 October 1979 was incorporated into Panama, with the US retaining responsibility for operation of the Panama Canal and the use of land in the zone for maintenance of the canal until the year 2000.
One of South America's two landlocked countries, Paraguay has a total area of 406,750 sq km (157,047 sq mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by Paraguay is slightly smaller than the state of California. The western 246,925 sq km (95,338 sq mi) of the country constitute a dry, sparsely populated region known as the Chaco, while the remaining 159,827 sq km (61,709 sq mi) lie in the more verdant east. Paraguay extends 992 km (616 mi) SSE–NNW and 491 km (305 mi) ENE–WSW. Bounded on the NE and E by Brazil, on the SE, S, and W by Argentina, and on the NW and N by Bolivia, Paraguay has a total boundary length of 3,920 km (2,436 mi).
Peru is South America's third-largest country, with an area of 1,285,220 sq km (496,226 sq mi), extending about 1,287 km (800 mi) SE–NW and 563 km (350 mi) NE–SW. Comparatively, the area occupied by Peru is slightly smaller than the state of Alaska. It is bounded on the N by Ecuador and Colombia, on the E by Brazil and Bolivia, on the S by Chile, and on the W by the Pacific Ocean, with a total land boundary length of 5,536 km (3,440 mi) and a coastline of 2,414 km (1,500 mi).
St. Kitts lies about 8 km (5 mi) SE of the Netherlands Antilles and 72 km (45 mi) NW of Antigua, in the Leeward Islands. It is 37 km (23 mi) long and 8 km (5 mi) across at its widest point, with a total area of 261 sq km (101 sq mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by St. Kitts and Nevis is slightly more than 1.5 times the size of Washington, D.C. Nevis lies about 3.2 km (2 mi) SE of St. Kitts, across a channel called the Narrows; it is 13 km (8 mi) long and 10 km (6 mi) wide, with a land area of 93 sq km (36 sq mi). Together the islands have a coastline of 135 km (84 mi).
The Caribbean island of St. Lucia, part of the Windward Islands group of the Lesser Antilles, is 43 km (27 mi) N–S by 23 km (14 mi) E–W and has a total area of 616 sq km (238 sq mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by St. Lucia is slightly less than3.5 times the size of Washington, D.C. Situated between Martinique to the N and St. Vincent to the SW, St. Lucia has a total coastline of 158 km (98 mi). The capital city, Castries, is located on St. Lucia's northwest coast.
Located in the Windward Islands group of the Lesser Antilles, St. Vincent and the Grenadines is 34 km (21 mi) SW of St. Lucia and about 160 km (100 mi) W of Barbados. Scattered between St. Vincent and Grenada to the SW are more than 100 small islands called the Grenadines, half of which belong to St. Vincent and the other half to Grenada. The Grenadines belonging to St. Vincent include Union Island, Mayreau, Canouan, Mustique, Bequia, and many other uninhabited cays, rocks, and reefs. The land area of St. Vincent island is 344 sq km (133 sq mi). Bequia, the largest of the Grenadines belonging to St. Vincent, has an area of 18 sq km (7 sq mi). The total land area of the country is 389 sq km (150 sq mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by St. Vincent and the Grenadines is slightly less than twice the size of Washington, D.C.
Situated on the northeast coast of South America, Suriname is the smallest independent country on the continent, with a total area of 163,270 sq km (63,039 sq mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by Suriname is slightly larger than the state of Georgia. The nation has an extension of 662 km (411 mi) NE–SW and 487 km (303 mi) SE–NW. Suriname is bordered on the N by the Atlantic Ocean, on the E by French Guiana, on the S by Brazil, and on the W by Guyana, with a total boundary length of 2,093 km (1,301 mi), of which 386 km (239 mi) is coastline. Suriname also claims about 15,000 sq km (5,800 sq mi) of southeastern Guyana and some 5,000 sq km (1,900 sq mi) of southwestern French Guiana.
Situated off the northeast coast of South America at the extreme southern end of the Lesser Antilles, the islands of Trinidad and Tobago cover an area of 5,128 sq km (1,981 sq mi). Comparatively, the area occupied by Trinidad and Tobago is slightly smaller than the state of Delaware. Trinidad, the main island, rectangular in shape, has an area of 4,828 sq km (1,863 sq mi), extending 143 km (89 mi) N–S and 61 km (38 mi) E–W. Cigar-shaped Tobago, 31 km (19 mi) northeast of Trinidad, has an area of 300 sq km (116 sq mi), a length of 42 km (26 mi) NE–SW, and an average width of 12 km (7.5 mi) NW–SE. Sixteen small islands are found off the coasts. The Atlantic Ocean is to the Eand the Caribbean Sea to the W. Venezuela lies only 11 km (7 mi) Sw across the shallow Gulf of Paria.
Bermuda is a colony consisting of some 300 coral islands (20 of them inhabited), situated in the Atlantic Ocean, 933 km (580 mi) east of Cape Hatteras (US) at 32° 19′ N and 64° 35′ W. Their total area is about 54 sq km (21 sq mi).
Located in the Western Hemisphere on the continent of North America, the United States is the fourth-largest country in the world. Its total area, including Alaska and Hawaii, is 9,629,091 sq km (3,717,813 sq mi). The conterminous United States extends 4,662 km (2,897 mi) ENE—WSW and 4,583 km (2,848 mi) SSE–NNW. It is bordered on the N by Canada, on the E by the Atlantic Ocean, on the S by the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico, and on the W by the Pacific Ocean, with a total boundary length of 17,563 km (10,913 mi). Alaska, the 49th state, extends 3,639 km (2,261 mi) E–W and 2,185 km (1,358 mi) N–S. It is bounded on the N by the Arctic Ocean and Beaufort Sea, on the E by Canada, on the S by the Gulf of Alaska, Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, and on the W by the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea, and Arctic Ocean, with a total land boundary of 12,034 km (7,593 mi) and a coastline of 19,924 km (12,380 mi). The 50th state, Hawaii, consists of islands in the Pacific Ocean extending 2,536 km (1,576 mi) N–S and 2,293 km (1,425 mi) E–W, with a general coastline of 1,207 km (750 mi).
The second-smallest South American country, Uruguay is situated in the southeastern part of the continent. It has an area of 176,220 sq km (68,039 sq mi), extending 555 km (345 mi) NNW–SSE and 504 km (313 mi) ENE–WSW. Comparatively, the area occupied by Uruguay is slightly smaller than the state of Washington. Bounded on the N and NE by Brazil, on the SE and S by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the W by Argentina, Uruguay has a total land boundary length of 1,564 km (972 mi) and a coastline of 660 km (410 mi). The Uruguay River and the Río de la Plata separate Uruguay from Argentina. The Cuareim and Yaguarón rivers and the Laguna Merín separate it from Brazil.
Venezuela, located on the northern coast of South America, covers an area of 912,050 sq km (352,144 sq mi), extending 1,487 km (924 mi) WNW–ESE and 1,175 km (730 mi) NNE–SSW. Comparatively, the area occupied by Venezuela is slightly more than twice the size of the state of California. It is bordered on the N by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the E by Guyana, on the S by Brazil, and on the W by Colombia, with a total land boundary of 4,993 km (3,103 mi) and a coastline of 2,800 km (1,740 mi). There are 72 offshore islands.
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